İngilizce Atatürk'ün Hayatı Atatürk was born in 1881 in Salonika. His mothers name was Zübeyde Hanım, his father name was Ali Rıza Efendi. Firstly he went to the religious school reluctantly for a short time and then he registered to Şemsi Efendi School. Without telling his parents, Atatürk attended to the military exam and he went on his school life in military schools. In 1893, his mathematics teacher gave him a second name, Kemal (meaning perfection and maturity). After graduated from military school, he began to his job carrier in Damascus. In the times of Ottoman Empire, he attended to the Tripoli War, Balkan Wars and First World War. After defeated in First World War, Ottoman Empire signed Armistice of Mudros. As a result of this armistice, national territory was begun to occupy, thus in 19 May 1919, Mustafa Kemal began to his journey to Samsun to start national resistance. After issuing Hamza and Amasya Circulars, he gathered Erzurum and Sivas Congress. In Sivas Congress, he gathered together all national associations in one union and assembled Defense of Rights for Anatolia and Roumelia. After Sivas Congress, he had a conference with Istanbul Government about Amasya Negotiation. Thus, Istanbul Government recognized formally the name of Representation Committee. Mustafa Kemal was selected as a president of the assembly and government on 23 April 1920 with establishing of the Grand National Assembly. On 5 August 1921, Mustafa Kemal was promoted to Commander in chief of the forces by the Grand National Assembly. After Battle of Sakarya victory, on 19 September 1921, Mustafa Kemal Pasha was graced by the Grand National Assembly the rank of Marshal and the title of Ghazi. Ghazi Mustafa Kemal who rescued the country from the enemies began the first president of the Republic of Turkey with the establishment of republic on 29 October 1923. In 1934, the surname of Atatürk was given to Ghazi Mustafa Kemal by the assembly. Atatürk made the Republic of Turkey to reach the status of civilized countries with his revolutions. Ghazi Mustafa Kemal, the founder of the Republic of Turkey, died on 10 November 1938 in Dolmabahçe Palace.