1.Dünya Savaşının İngilizce Anlatımı

'Tarih Bölümü' forumunda EyLüL tarafından 9 Tem 2011 tarihinde açılan konu

  1. 1.Dünya Savaşının İngilizce Anlatımı
    1.Dünya Savaşının İngilizce Anlatım
    1.Dünya Savaşının İngilizce

    Firstly let’s learn about the Ottoman Empire’s economic situation before the
    Capitulations: Economic concession. It first started in 1536 between the
    Ottoman Empire and France. Later, most of the European countries had this
    economic concession. It was not useful for the Ottoman Empire but the empire
    could not cancel it because of its weakness.
    Before the war, because of the capitulations foreign merchants cleared
    through the customs without paying any tax. This weakened the Turkish
    merchants. When the World War I started, the Ottoman Empire stopped
    Also huge depts weakened the economy of the empire. Most of the depts paid
    by Turkey later. There were very rare railways and automobiles in the
    country so transportation was a great problem.
    Most of the other powerful countries had colonies. Because of that their
    economies grew rapidly. Also they used the advantage of the industrial
    revolution. So the Ottoman Empire could not resist them.
    European sailors discovered new trade routes. Because of that the Ottoman
    Empire’s economy damaged.
    What caused World War I?
    The assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand triggered World War I. But
    the war had its origins in developments of the 1800′s. The main causes of
    World War I were:
    The Rise of Nationalism: Nationalism was one of the reasons of the World
    War I which is the belief that loyalty to a person’s nation and its
    political and economic goals comes before any other public loyalty.
    Nationalism created two new powers – Italy and Germany – through the uniting
    of many small states. On the other hand, nationalism weakened the eastern
    European empires of Austria-Hungary, Russia, and Ottoman. Those empires
    ruled many national groups that clamored for independence. The Balkan
    Peninsula or the “Powder Keg of Europe” because tensions there threatened to
    ignite a major war. Rivalry for control of the Balkans added to the tensions
    that erupted into World War I.
    Military Forces: Nationalism encouraged public support for military
    build-ups and for a country’s use of force to achieve its goals. By the late
    1800′s, Germany had the best trained army in the world. In 1898 Germany
    began developing a naval force that was big enough to challenge the British
    navy. In 1906, the British navy launched the Dreadnought, the first modern
    battleship. The Dreadnought had greater firepower that any other ship of its
    time. Germany rushed to construct on just like it. Advances in technology
    helped aid in making military forces stronger. Machine guns and other new
    arms fired more accurately and more rapidly that earlier weapons. By the end
    of the 1800′s, technology enabled countries to fight longer and bear greater
    losses that ever before.
    Alliances: A system of military alliances gave European powers a sense of
    security before World War 1. They formed these alliances with each other for
    protection and guarente that other members of the alliance would come to the
    country’s aid if attacked. Although alliances provided protection, the
    system also created certain dangers. If war came, the alliance system meant
    that a number of nations would fight, not only the two involved in a
    dispute. Alliances could force a country to go to war against a nation
    without a reason.
    The Triple Alliance was made up of three countries, Germany, Italy, and
    Austria-Hungary. They all agreed to go to war if attacked by Russia.
    Bismarck also brought Austria-Hungary and Germany into alliance with Russia.
    The agreement was known as the Three Emperor’s League and was formed in
    1881. They all agreed to remain neutral if any of them went to war with
    another country. In 1890 when Bismarck left office it gave a chance for
    Russia and France to form an alliance. In 1894, France and Russia agreed to
    call up troops if any naiton in the Triple Alliance mobilized. Russia and
    France also agreed to help each other if either were attacked by Germany.
    On June 28, 1914 Archduke Francis Ferdinand was assassinated by a Serbian
    terrorist named Gavrilo Princip. The Archduke’s assassination triggered the
    outbreak of World War I.
    On July 28 Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia. Because of
    Austria-Hungary’s alliance with Germany, Serbia seeked help from Russia. In
    1914 Russia vowed to stand behind Serbia, but first Russia gained support
    from France. Germany declared war on Russia on August 1, 1914, in response
    to Russia’s mobilization. Two days later Germany declared war on France. The
    German Army swept into Belgium on its way to France. The invasion of Belgium
    caused Britian to declare war on Germany on August 4. Germany’s plan for a
    quick defeat of France while Russia slowly mobilized was called the
    Schlieffen Plan. This plan called for two wings of the German army to crush
    the French army in a pincers movement. A small left wing would defend
    Germany alongs its frontier with France. A much larger right wing would
    invade France through Belgium; encircle and capture Paris; and them move
    east. Belgiums army held up the Germans for only a short time. By August
    16,1914, the right wing of Germany could begin its motion. It drove back
    French and British forces in southern Belguim and swept info France. But
    instead of swinging west around Paris, one part of the right wing pursued
    retreating French toops toward the Marne River. This maneuver left the
    Germans exposed to attacks form the rear.
    Meanwhile, General Joseph Joffre, commander of all French armies, stationed
    his forces near the Marne River east of Paris and prepared for battle. This
    battle was later known as the First Battle of the Marne, beginning on
    September 6 and ending September 9 when German forces started to withdraw.
    The First Battle of the Marne was a key victory for the Allies because it
    ended Germany’s hopes to defeat France quickly. The German army halted its
    retreat near the Aisne River. From there, the Germans and the Allies fought
    a series of battles that became known as the “Race to the Sea”. Germany
    tried to reach the English Channel and sabotage supply lines between France
    and Britian. But the Allies stopped the Germans in the First Battle of Ypres
    in Belgium. The battle lasted from mid-October until mid-November. By late
    November 1914, the war reached a deadlock along the Western Front as neither
    side gained much ground. The deadlock lasted nearly 3 1/2 years.
    Both the Allies and the Central Powers developed new weapons, which they
    hoped would break the deadlock. In April 1915, the Germans first released
    poison gas over Allied lines in the Second Battle of Ypres. The fumes caused
    vomiting and suffocation. After the introduction of the poison, gas masks
    were used. Another new weapon was the flame thrower, which shot out a stream
    of burning fuel.
    In 1917, first France and then Britain saw their hopes of victory
    shattered. Austria-Hungary drove the Italians out of its territory in the
    Battle of Caporetto in the fall and revolution in Russia made the Allied
    situation seem even more hopeless.
    The most important country in the World War I was USA. Because they changed
    the winner of the war.
    At the start of the war, President Wilson had declared the neutrality of
    the United States. Most Americans opposed US involvement in the European
    war. But the sinking of the Lusitania and other German actions against
    civilians drew America sympathies to the Allies. German military leaders
    believed that they could still win the war by cutting off British supplies.
    They expected their U-boats to starve Britain into surrendering within a few
    months, longer before the US had fully prepared for war. Tension between the
    US and Germany increased after the British intercepted and decoded a message
    from Germany’s foreign minister, Arthur Zimmermann, the German ambassador to
    Mexico. The message known as the “Zimmermann note”, revealed a German plot
    to persuade Mexico to go to war against the United States. The British gave
    the message to Wilson, and it was published in the US early in March.
    Mobilization The US entered the war unprepared for battle. Strong antiwar
    feelings had harmpered efforts to prepare for war. Government propaganda
    pictured the war as a battle for liberty and democracy. During World War I,
    US Government agencies directed the nations economy toward the war effort.
    President Wison put financier Bernard M. Baruch in charge of the War
    Industries Board, which turned factories into producers of war materials.
    Manpower was a chief contribution to the United States to World War I. The
    country entered the war with about 126,000 men. It soon orginized a draft
    requiring all from 21 through 30 years old to register for military service.
    The age range was broadened to 18 through 45 in 1918. Many men enlisted
    voluntarily, and women signed up as nurses and office workers. The US armed
    forces had almost 5 million men and women by the end of the war. Few
    soldiers received much training before going overseas because the Allies
    urgently needed them. Before US help could reach the Western Front, the
    Allies had to overcome the U-boat threat in the Atlantic. In May 1917,
    Britian began to use a convoy system, by which cargo ships went to the sea
    in large groups escorted be warships. The U-boats proved no match for the
    warships and Allied shipping losses dropped sharply.
    The end of the war on the Eastern Front increased German hopes for victory.
    By early 1918 German forces outnumbered the Allies on the Western Front. In
    Spring, Germany staged three offensives. Ludendorff counted on delivering a
    crushing blow to the Allies before larger numbers of Americans reached the
    front. Germany first struck near St.-Quentin, a city in the Somme River
    Valley, on March 21,1918. By March 26, British troops had retreated about 30
    miles. In late March, the Germans began to bombard Paris with “Big Berthas”.
    The enormous guns hurle shells up to 75 miles. In April, after the disaster
    at St-Quentin, Allied leaders appointed General Ferdinand Foch for France to
    the supreme commander of the Allied forces on the Western Front. A second
    German offensive began on April 9 along the Lys River in Belgium. British
    troops called off the attack on April 30. Germany attacked a third time on
    May 27 near the Aisne River. By May 30, German troops had reached the Marne
    River. American soldiers helped France stop the German advance at the town
    of Chateau-Thierry, less than 50 miles northeast of Paris. During June, US
    troops drove the Germans out of Belleau Wood, a forested area near the
    Marne. On July 15 German troops crossed the Marne. On July 18 Foch ordered a
    counter-attack near the town of Soissons.
    The critical point in World War I was the Second Battle of Marne. This
    battle was fought from July 15 through August 6, 1918. After winning the
    battle, the Allies advanced steadily. On August 8, Britian and France
    attacked the Germans near Amiens. By early September, Germany had lost all
    the territory it had gained since spring. In mid-September, Pershing led US
    forces to an easy victory at St.-Mihiel. The last offensive of World War I
    began on September 26, 1918. Almost 900000 US troops participated in heavy
    fighting between the Argonne Forrest and the Meuse River. Ludendorff
    realized that Germany could no longer overcome the superior strength of the
    The Allies won victories on all fronts in the fall of 1918. Bulgaria forces
    under the command of General Edmund Allenby triumphed over the Ottoman army
    in Palestine and Syria. On October 30, the Ottoman Empire signed an
    armistice. The last major battle between Italy and Austria-Hungary began in
    late October in Italy. Italy defeated Austria-Hungary near the town of
    Vittorio Veneto with the help of France and Great Britian. Austria-Hungary
    signed an amistice on November 3. Germany teetered on the edge of collapse
    as the war continued through October. Britian’s naval blockade had nearly
    starved German people and widespread discontent led to roits and rising
    demands for peace. In the early morning on November 11,1918, the Germans
    accepted the armistice terms demanded by the Allies. Germany agreed to
    evacuate the terrorities it had taken during the war; to surrender larger
    numbers of arms; and other war materials; and to allow Allied powers to
    occupy German territory along the Rhine River. Foch ordered the fighting to
    stop on the Western Front at 11 am. World War I was over!
    War Costs
    Triple Alliance $(1914-18)
    USA 22,625,253,000
    England 35,334,012,000
    France 24,265,583,000
    Russia 22,293,950,000
    Italy 12,413,998,000
    Belgium 1,154,468,000
    Romania 1,600,000,000
    Japan 40,000,000
    Serbia 399,400,000
    Greece 270,000,000
    Canada 1,665,576,000
    Australia 1,423,208,000
    New Zelland 378,750,000
    India 601,279,000
    South Africa 300,000,000
    Colonies of England 125,000,000
    Others 500,000,000
    Total 125,690,477,000
    Central Powers $(1914-18)
    Germany 37,775,000,000
    Austria-Hungary 20,622,960,000
    Ottoman Empire 1,430,000,000
    Bulgaria 815,200,000
    Total 60,643,160,000
    During the war, enemies of the Ottoman Empire could supply their soldiers
    and resources from their colonies. So, military losses seriously affected
    the Ottoman Empire. For example; in the Gallipoli Campaign, according to the
    Turkish sources, the Allies’ total casualties are 187.000 soldiers. The
    Turkish causality is 57.084 soldiers in the land attacks and 179.000
    soldiers in the naval attack and totally 211.000 soldiers. In these wars,
    many educated, intellectual Turkish people had died. Their loss had
    negatively effected Turkey in coming years.
    Because of the geographic situation of the Ottoman Empire, army had to
    fight in a large number of fronts. Some of them were for the empire’s
    protection, some of them were for helping their allies. Also the Arabic
    people in Hicaz region were provoked by Lawrence T.E. (an English spy) who
    is known as Lawrence of Arabia. These places were important because they
    have petroleum resources. So, the Ottoman Empire had to use an army for
    Hicaz region.
    Because of the war, the Ottoman Empire’s economic relations with the other
    countries stopped. The empire had to create its resources from itself.
    Most of the commodity which are imported before the war, now had to be
    supplied from Anatolia.
    During the war, because of the mobilization, most of the economical
    processes were under the control of government. To supply the army’s
    necessities, the empire sometimes bought, sometimes confiscated. Most of the
    commodity and services were used for army so the economic level of the
    people in Anatolia decreased.
    As a result; not only the Ottoman Empire was in war but also the economy
    was weak so the people of Anatolia could not survive easily.
    On October 30,1918 The Ottoman Empire signed the Mudros Armistice which had
    heavy terms that spelled, in brief, unconditional surrender. On the 13th of
    November, allied battleships and cruisers anchored in the İstanbul harbor.
    The city was unofficially occupied. That same day, Mustafa Kemal, a
    full-general at the age of 37, the brilliant tactician of the Dardanelles
    and other fronts, disembarked from the train which brought him back home
    from the southern front. He said to his adjutant: “Don’t worry young man.
    They shall go the way they came.”
    After the world war I, Mudros and Sevres treaties damaged the Ottoman
    Empire’s “sick” economy. By the help of these treaties a lot of new
    countries gained advantage from capitulations and had authorization to
    occupy every place they want in the empire.
    According to Sevres Treaty, the Ottoman Empire’s economy will be adjusted
    by a commision whose members are England, France, Italy and the Ottoman
    Empire. This means the empire will not have a freedom economically. Hicaz
    region will be independent. This means there will be no petroleum resources
    in the country. Bosphorus will be governed by a special government
    consisting of members from Europe. This special region will have its own
    flag, economic structure and army. So it will not be useful for the empire
    any more. The Ottoman country was only the middle Anatolia so it was very
    hard to industrialize for the empire.
    Fortunately, by the help of the Independence War, these treaties were
    cancelled: The views expressed at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919 were
    that Turkey would be divided up. Meanwhile in the Aegean region the Greek
    Army was advancing swiftly, equipped by Great Britain with the most modern
    weapons of the day, the French were rapidly occupying in southeastern
    Anatolia and in the east the Army of the Armenian Republic was advancing.
    The Ottoman government, implementing the terms of the armistice, was against
    any form of resistance on the grounds that it would “anger” the enemies. The
    Ottoman governments have no power or decisiveness. Therefore the Turkish
    nation must decide its own fate and map its own future. The only path to
    this goal is the founding of a new state based on the sovereignty of the
    nation. On his return from the front to İstanbul, Mustafa Kemal Pasha
    realized the hopelessness of the situation, and that the time had come to
    put into action the plans he had nourished since his youth. He decided to go
    into Anatolia and pursue the struggle from there. In the early months of
    1919 Anatolia was a hotbed of troubles, and Mustafa Kemal requested that the
    government assign him to go and deal with them. This request was accepted,
    and he left İstanbul with this understanding.
    On May 19, 1919 he set foot in Samsun. Mustafa Kemal Pasha was now in
    Anatolia, to unite it and reconcile antagonistic factions. His first step
    would be to bring about the congresses he had planned, one by one. An
    association known as the Legal Society for the Defense of Anatolia and
    Rumelia wanted the Ottoman Parliament to convene and establish peace
    conditions, but in this matter Mustafa Kemal was not hopeful. Nevertheless
    the Parliament, in the National Oath of January 28,1920, asked for a peace
    in which all borders were removed that threatened the territorial integrity
    of Turkey. Only if this condition were met could peace talks be held. The
    Entente Powers, who had thought the Eastern Question was resolved, were
    greatly disturbed by this action taken under the influence of the Anatolian
    National Movement, and in their anger occupied İstanbul on March 16,1920.
    Thus for the first time in 467 years the city no longer had the status of
    Ottoman capital. Not long before this, on December 27, 1919, Ankara had been
    made the center of national resistance, and it was now time to found a
    National Parliament. The Entente Powers dictated the final peace of the
    World War I, the Peace of Sevres (August 10,1920), which the Ottoman
    government was forced to sign. Under the terms of this peace, all of eastern
    Thrace, plus İzmir and the Aegean region, were ceded to Greece. The straits
    were to be managed jointly, without the participation of the Turks. In
    addition, a large part of the country’s eastern territory was ceded to
    Armenia, which had been established in Russia. Southern Anatolia was to be
    settled by French, Italian and British populations, so that only a small
    Ottoman State was left in Anatolia.
    This peace roused the patriotic fervor of the Turks even more, and the
    youthful army of the new state began to win its first victories. The
    Armenian army, which had occupied Eastern Anatolia at the end of World War
    I, was expelled from these territories and signed a peace at Gümrü on
    December 3, 1920, while the progress of the Greeks, who had set their sights
    on Ankara, was brought to a halt. The first diplomatic contacts with the new
    Turkish state now began to be made, as the Soviet Union, impressed by the
    victories that Turkish National Assembly Army have cited, signed an aid
    agreement at Moscow on March 16,1921. Meanwhile the French advance in the
    southeast was put to a definitive halt by the Turkish militia. These
    developments led Greece, at the instigation of Great Britain, to prepare a
    major new offensive, and they advanced as far as the Sakarya River near
    Ankara. Meanwhile the National Assembly was temporarily relieving Mustafa
    Kemal of his powers so that he could devote his attentions to the war as
    Commander in Chief. The Greeks renewed their offensive on August 23,1921,
    and were repulsed on September 13 after 22 days and nights of fighting in
    which no quarter was given. With this victory, a thousand years of the
    Turkish presence in Anatolia were confirmed. After this victory won with the
    meagerest of means, the French signed a peace with Ankara on October
    20,1921, while the Italians also evacuated from the territory they had
    occupied. This left the Greeks and British alone. The following year, in
    September, 1922, the Greeks were expelled from Anatolia as the result of a
    grand Turkish offensive. The British were determined to remain in eastern
    Thrace and the straits at all costs, but thanks to the wise policies of the
    Turkish government they found themselves isolated. They were thus compelled
    to sign an armistice, at Mudanya on October 11,1922. There was all the
    difference in the world between this armistice and that of Mudros signed
    some four years previously.
    After his victory at the Battle of the Sakarya, Mustafa Kemal was given the
    rank of Marshal by the National Assembly and in addition was awarded the
    title of Gazi. This title is reserved by the Islamic world for only its
    greatest heroes.
    Mustafa Kemal Pasha wanted to sign a peace which would confirm the
    independence and freedom from conditions of the new Turkish state, while the
    Allies, preparing to meet in Lausanne, aimed for an agreement which would
    take the Treaty of Sevres as its model, even though the Turkish National
    Assembly did not recognize this treaty. In order to divide the Turks at the
    conference, the Entente Powers had also invited the İstanbul government.
    This was taken as an outrage by the Turkish National Assembly, which had no
    choice but to legally dissolve the Ottoman Sultanate. This they did on
    November 1, 1922. Thus the Ottoman Sultanate, which had already expired in
    fact, legally too became a thing of the past. So now, there was only one
    government in Turkey, that founded by the Turkish National Assembly.
    The Turkish state was represented at Lausanne by a national hero, İsmet
    Pasha (İnönü). The Turkish delegation stood alone, for England, France and
    their allies had formed a common front in order to preserve their interests.
    There was no one to back Turkey’s cause, so that İsmet İnönü and the rest of
    the delegation were compelled to wage a diplomatic battle like that of the
    Sakarya. The peace signed at Lausanne on July 24,1923, put an end to the
    centuries-old Eastern Question, and gave the new Turkish State complete
    independence. The forces of occupation in İstanbul, which had arrived on
    November 13, 1918, departed on October 2, 1923, saluting the Turkish flag as
    they left.
    Turkey had no resources for the Independence War so Turkish National
    Assembly tried to get resources from the people of Anatolia. The name of the
    orders which are used for this purpose is Tekalif-i Milliye. Turkish people
    gave 40% of their goods or riches to Turkish National Assembly for the
    Independence War. They were guns, shoes, cables, cotton, cattle animals,
    clothes, petroleum, diesel, tires, cells, sulfiric acid, straw, flour,
    barley, rope, sugar, soap, salt, candles, horseshoes, nails… After the war
    Turkish National Assembly gave back all these commodity to Turkish people.
    After the Independence War most of the foreign businessmen and merchants
    left Turkey. The number of qualified workers decreased. Because of that
    Turkey had to educate its own workers again. The only economic process was
    agriculture during these days.
    Despite the unrecoverable situation of economy, Turkey could win the
    Independence War. Turkish people did not fight with their guns only. They
    also fought with their commodity and riches. This made the Independence War
    special. Also it was special because Turkey was against imperialist
    countries. This war affected the whole world. After the Independence War
    most of the colonies of the imperialist countries tried to be independent.
    This event changed the world’s economic structure.
    Conclusion: The Ottoman Empire was a “sick” man before the world war I. The
    government thought that they could gain a lot of things by the help of the
    war by choosing the right side. But Germany was the wrong choice. Although
    they have a great army, they had disadvantages for the war: They have not
    got so much colonies. Also USA entered the war. Because of these reasons
    Germany lost the war. Although the Ottoman Army fighted bravely, the empire
    lost too. Not only the war but also the Sebres Treaty damaged the economy.
    The Ottoman economy became worse. Fortunately, Turkish National Assembly
    could win the Independence War. By the help of this war, Sevres Treaty was
    cancelled. Otherwise, it will be impossible to recover the economy.